ANEMIA: a condition when the blood isn’t transporting oxygen throughout the body efficiently, due either to a lack of red blood cells or hemoglobin.
AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE: a disease where the immune system attacks the body's own tissues.
BIOPSY: a medical procedure where cells or tissues are removed from the body for testing.
ENDOSCOPY: a medical procedure where doctors insert an endoscope, or flexible thin tube with a light source and video camera) through the mouth to view the small intestine. Tiny tools can be threaded through the tubing to biopsy the esophagus, the stomach, and about 3/4 of the duodenum, or first section of the small intestine.
COLONOSCOPY: a medical procedure to examine the inside of the rectum and the large intestine, or colon.
ENZYME: substance that produces a chemical change in another substance. Most enzymes are proteins. Gluten, which is a protein found in wheat, barley and rye, is a mixture of two types of proteins: prolamins and glutelins. When people with Celiac disease ingest gluten, it triggers an autoimmune response that results in damage to the small intestine and villi.
MALTODEXTRIN: a chemical derivate of wheat, often found in packaged foods.
NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY: a condition where someone gets symptoms from gluten ingestion but does not have celiac disease or another gluten-related disorder.
OSTEOPENIA: bone density that is significantly lower than normal, putting you at risk for developing osteoporosis, a condition where low bone density makes bones brittle and easily broken. People with Celiac disease should have a bone density test, and usually supplement their diet with extra calcium and vitamin D3, as well as a weight-bearing exercise routine.
QUINOA: (prounced KEEN-wah) an ancient Incan seed with a nutty taste that is high in protein.
VILLI: small finger-like protrusions in the lining of the small intestine. Their function is to capture vitamins and nutrients.